What is a balancing machine?

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Release time:

2023-06-19

The balancing machine is a machine used to measure the size and position of the unevenness of a rotating object (rotor).

When one of the rotors rotates around the axis, centrifugal force is generated due to the uneven distribution of mass with respect to the axis. This kind of unbalanced centrifugal force acting on the rotor bearing will cause vibration, generate noise, accelerate bearing wear, and seriously affect the performance and service life of the product. Rotating parts, such as motor rotors, machine tool spindles, internal combustion engine crankshafts, turbine rotors, gyro rotors, clock balances, etc., all need to be balanced during the production process to operate smoothly and normally.

Using the data measured by the balancing machine to correct the rotor imbalance can improve the mass distribution of the rotor relative to the shaft, so that the vibration generated by the rotor when the rotor rotates or the vibration force of the bearing is reduced to the allowable range. Therefore, the balancing machine is the necessary equipment to reduce vibration, improve performance and improve quality.

The general rotor balance includes the measurement of the unevenness and the correction of the unevenness. The balancing machine is mainly used to measure the unevenness of the measurement, and the unevenness of the correction is more than the use of other auxiliary equipment, such as drilling machines, milling machines and spot welding machines, Or use manual methods to complete. Some balancing machines make the calibrator part of the balancing machine.

Gravity balancing machine and centrifugal balancing machine are two typical balancing machines. General weighing force balancing machine for static balancing machine. That is, the static imbalance is measured by the gravity of the rotor itself.

For example, a rotor placed on two horizontal guide rails, if there is a measure of unevenness, its gravitational moment on the shaft causes the rotor to roll on the guide rail until this uneven measurement is at a very low position.

The balanced rotor is placed on a bracket supported by hydrostatic bearings, and a reflector is embedded under the bracket. When there is no unevenness measurement, the light beam emitted by the light source is reflected by the mirror and projected to the polar coordinate origin of the unevenness indicator. If the rotor has uneven measurement, the rotor support is tilted under the action of the gravity moment of the unevenness measurement, and the mirror under the support is also tilted, so that the reflected beam is deflected, so that it is projected onto the polar coordinate indicator. The light spot on it leaves the origin. From the coordinate position of this deflection, the magnitude and position of the non-uniformity measurement can be obtained.

The utility model is only applicable to disc-shaped parts with low requirements on balance. For rotors with high balance requirements, centrifugal single-sided or double-sided balancing machines are usually used.

Centrifugal balancing machine is in the rotor rotation state, according to the rotor imbalance generated by the support vibration, or the amount of vibration acting on the support to measure the imbalance. According to the number of leveling and balancing machines, it can be divided into single-sided balancing machines and double-sided balancing machines. A single-sided balancing machine can only measure the unbalance of one plane (static unbalance). Although it is measured when the rotor rotates, it is still a static balancing machine. The two-sided balance function measures dynamic imbalance, and can also measure dynamic imbalance and even imbalance respectively, which is generally called dynamic balancing machine.

According to the different bearing characteristics, centrifugal balancing machine can be divided into soft support balancing machine and hard support balancing machine. The balance speed of the rotor single support system is higher than its natural frequency, which is called soft support balancing machine. The supporting stiffness of the machine is small, and the signal detected by the sensor is proportional to the vibration displacement of the support. The balance frequency of the rotor support system is lower than the natural frequency of the rotor, which is called a hard support balancing machine. It has a large support stiffness, and the signal detected by the sensor is proportional to the vibration of the support.

The main performance indicators of the balancing machine are two comprehensive indicators: small residual unevenness and unbalance reduction rate. The former method is to measure the balance of the balance function to achieve a small value of the remaining uneven, it is a measure of the balance of the high balance of the ability of the indicator.

Due to the wide application of flexible rotors, flexible rotor balancing machines have appeared in modern machinery. This balancing device must be stepless speed regulation within the working speed range of the rotor. In addition to the support vibration and vibration, it can also measure its flexural deformation. Flexible rotor balancing machines are sometimes installed in vacuum containment chambers to accommodate the balancing of rotors such as steam turbines. It is equipped with a large number of auxiliary equipment, such as vacuum system, lubrication system, lubricating oil degassing system and computer data processing system.

A large number of modern equipment in automobile manufacturing, motor manufacturing and other industrial sectors, according to the needs of mass production, to achieve a specific rotor automatic balance measurement and balance correction, and can be used to balance the automatic line.

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